Ecuador: The Facts
Slightly smaller than the state of Nevada, Ecuador packs a lot into its borders. The following facts provide information on Ecuador. If you can’t find what you’re looking for, just ask us. We’ll track down an answer for you.
Location: Ecuador is located in the northwest corner of South America. It borders Peru, Colombia, and the Pacific Ocean. Ecuador is located directly over the equator and has latitude and longitude positions of 2˚S and 77˚30˚W.
Land Area: 106,888 square miles (276,840 sq. km)
Land Borders: Total 1,390 miles (2,237 km) — 950 miles (1,529 km) with Peru and 440 miles (708 km) with Colombia.
Total Coastline: 1,390 miles (2,237 km)
Capital City: Quito
Highest Point: Mt. Chimborazo at 20,561 feet (6,267 m).
Lowest Point: Sea level
Temperature Range: Temperatures depend on the season and location, but can range from 40°F to 90°F (4°C to 32°C).
Average Rainfall: Rainfall depends on the season and location. The rainiest area is the Amazon, which sees up to 16 feet (5 m) of rain.
Humidity: Humidity depends on the season and location, but can range from 40% to 90%.
Population: 15,654,411 (2014 est.)
Population Growth Rate: 1.37% (2014 est.)
Population Density: 61.39/sq. km (2011 est.)
Ethnicities: 71.9% mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white), 7.4% Montubio, 7.2% Afroecuadorian, 7% Amerindian, 6.1% white, and 0.4% other (2010 est.).
Official Language: Spanish
Religion: Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous beliefs.
Dialing code: 593
Quality of Life
Life Expectancy: 76.36 years
Life Expectancy of Men: 73.4 years
Life Expectancy of Women: 70.46 years
Fertility Rate: 2.29 births per woman (2014 est.)
Poverty Rate: About 25.6% of the population is estimated to live below the poverty line, which is defined as an income that is insufficient to purchase basic goods and services.
Airports: 432; 104 airports have paved runways, 328 airports have unpaved runways.
Roadways: 27,135 miles (43,670 km) total; 4,021 miles (6,472 km) paved and 23,113 miles (37,198 km) unpaved.
Railways: 600 miles (965 km) total.
Waterways: 932 miles (1,500 km), but most are inaccessible.
Ports: Guayaquil, Esmeraldas, Manta, Puerto Bolivar
Government and Economy
Government Type: Republic
Head of Government: President Rafael Correa Delgado (elected January, 2007)
Legislative Branch: Unicameral National Assembly (137 seats; members elected through a party-list proportional representation system and serve four-year terms).
Independence Day: August 10, 1809 (from Spain)
National Constitution: There are have been several previous constitutions. The latest was adopted on October 20, 2008. Traditional law is used in indigenous communities.
Suffrage: For voters 18–65 years of age, voting is universal and compulsory. For those ages 16–18 and over the age of 65, voting is voluntary.
National Symbol: Andean condor (bird)
Currency: United States Dollar
GDP per Capita: $10,600 (2013 est.)
Industry: petroleum, textiles, food processing, wood products, and chemicals.
Exports: petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, cacao, coffee, shrimp, fish, and wood.
Agriculture: bananas, coffee, cocoa, potatoes, rice, sugarcane, plantains, cattle, pigs, sheep, beef, pork, dairy products, balsa wood, fish, and shrimp.